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Order of St. Stanislaw. Established
in 1765, basically as a Religious Order. Named for the patron Saint
of Poland. This Order was taken over by Imperial Russia upon absorbing
Poland. Only 145 Polish awards were made. Originals are not
likely to be encountered, and they would be tremendously expensive.
Replicas are of considerable cost. On a red ribbon with 2 white
Russian versions (after 1831) have the double headed Romanov eagle.
Order Virtuti Militari. Originally
established as an oval Medal in 1792, when 20 gold and 40 silver
were struck to honor the efforts of valiant Polish soldiers at the battle
of Zilience. The Order was then changed to a Cross in 1793.
These crosses were for the most part unique as they were made by jewelers
in Poland and France, especially Paris. They are very valuable and
difficult to authenticate. This Order was expanded to include 5 classes.
i) Grand Cross with a Star, ii) Commander's Cross on a neck ribbon,
iii) Cavalier's Cross, iv) Gold Cross and v) Silver Cross. Classes
i to iii have black enameled arms on the cross. Medal originally
on a red ribbon, but changed to blue with 2 black stripes.
The Cross was also liberally awarded (as an insult) as badges
by the Russians after 1831, for service in Czarist controlled Poland
Order of the White Eagle. A revival of the original Order. Very few were ever made and awarded. Only 111 were awarded in this era. Awarded to very outstanding Poles (only 24 awards to Poles) and Foreign heads of state etc.. Still considered the highest Polish Order. This order would be enormously expensive and is not likely to be seen outside a museum. Good replicas are also moderately expensive. Awarded in one class only, with a pale blue sash and a Star.
Order Virtuti Militari. This Order
was revived from the original Order in 1919, in 5 classes.
For the most extremely outstanding acts of valour. i) Grand Cross with Star, ii) Commander's cross on a neck ribbon, iii) Cavalier's Cross, iv) Gold Cross, v) Silver Cross. Classes i to iii have black enameled arms. Eagle and "VIRTUTI MILITARI" on obverse. "HONOR I OJCZYZNA 1792" on reverse. Original crosses for the most part are numbered on the reverse. Sterling silver (to foreigners only) or silver / gold plating on top of a brass, bronze or copper Cross. On a blue ribbon with 2 black stripes.
Order Polonia Restituta. This order
was officially adopted in 1921. The reverse is dated 1918.
It is considered to be a very high decoration. The ribbon is that
of the Order of St. Stanislaw and is considered by some to be a continuation
of the Order. This Order is awarded to those contributing to the
restoration or building of Poland, outstanding meritorious acts, long meritorious
service and sometimes for acts of bravery. It was sometimes awarded
"POLONIA RESTITVTA" and crowned Eagle on obverse. "1918" on the reverse. It had 5 classes, i) Grand Cross with Star, ii) Commander's Cross with Star, iii) Commander's Cross, iv) Officer's Cross and v) Cavalier's Cross. Crosses in classes i to iii were worn around the neck.
On a red ribbon with 2 white stripes.
Independence Cross and Medal. Established
in 1930 and awarded to those who fought in combat
(civilians and foreigners also eligible) with distinction for Polish independence, excluding the Polish-Bolshevik war. The crosses (with or without swords) are considered to be the next highest decoration after the Order Virtuti Militari and some classes of the Order Polonia Restituta. Awarded in three "grades": i) Independence Cross with Swords, awarded for participation before 1914 or to commanders of a later fight; ii) Independence Cross without Swords, awarded for significant contributions and; iii) Independence Medal awarded for lesser acts. Cross gilt, with black enameled arms, a small Eagle and "BOJOWNIKOM NIEPODLEGLOSCI" on obverse. Plain reverse. Medal with 3 snakes pierced by swords and "BOJOWNIKOM NIEPODLEGLOSCI" on obverse. "RP" on reverse. All on a black ribbon with 2 orange / red stripes.
Cross of Valour. This Cross and the Order Virtuti Militari were the only two awards of the 2nd Republic for valour in the field until the establishment of newer awards. First awarded in 1920 (when no year appeared on the bottom arm of the cross) for the insurrections of 1863-64. It was also awarded to Polish soldiers who fought in the First World War. Modified to include the year 1920 on the lower arm of the cross to reflect the conflict with the Bolsheviks. It was awarded for outstanding acts of valour. Several sub variants exist, including a smaller version. Most are numbered on the top reverse arm. Made of bronze or plated copper/brass. Eagle on the obverse and "NA POLU CHWALY" and a date "1920". Reverse "WALECZNYM". On a silk ribbon that varies from wine to burgundy to purple and has two white stripes. Additional awards were denoted with a bar on the ribbon for each subsequent award, up to a maximum of 4 awards (3 bars).
Cross of Merit. Instituted in 1923 to recognize meritorious acts in benefit to Poland by civilians, military personnel and foreigners. It was awarded for bravery, military service, cultural contributions, philanthropy and various other accomplishments. It has three classes: 1st in gold, 2nd in silver and 3rd in solid bronze. "RP" on obverse. Gold and silver crosses have red enameled arms and a white enameled circle on the front. Multiple awards denoted with a bar on the ribbon. Most earlier issues are hallmarked and/or numbered on the reverse. Later issues may have plain reverse. The arms and rays of the cross are separated by cuts, which makes them easy to identify. Some privately purchased issues do not have the arms and rays cut out, but usually have a maker's stamp on the reverse. On a crimson ribbon with two pale blue stripes.
Cross of Merit for Bravery. Similar to the Cross of Merit, but in silver only. The additional words "Za Dielnosc" are on the arms of the cross. An additional diagonal stripe of pale blue and green ribbon is placed on top of the regular Cross of Merit ribbon. Can be awarded up to three times to a person, each subsequent award denoted by a bar on the ribbon. Awarded to border guards and other frontier enforcement personnel for bravery. Crosses are usually numbered on the reverse, all under 377.
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Cross of Merit of the Central Lithuanian Army. Awarded for merit to those who helped to liberate Wilno (Vilnius, Lithuania) from the Bolsheviks in 1920 under the command of General Zeligowski. Made of yellowish bronze with Eagle and Pogon on obverse with "WILNO 9.X 19.XI 1920". "LITWA SRODKOWA" and numbered on the reverse. On a green ribbon with 7 sets of orange & yellow pinstripes.
Cross of Valour and Merit of the Silesian Army. In 2 classes. In several variations, awarded to those who fought in Silesia against the Germans until 1921. Silver plated or white metal cross with Silesian Eagle on the obverse and "POWST GORNY SLASK 1921". Reverse "DZIEL NYM" and some later variants with additional "5 PP RYBN". Suspended on a pale blue ribbon with two wide white stripes and thin red edges. A Star on the ribbon denotes a first class award. Also issued as a commemorative medal (see below).
1918-21 War Medal. Established in 1928 and awarded to veterans who volunteered in the 1918-1921 war with the Bolsheviks. Made of bronze suspended by a barrel connector. Eagle with a Virtuti Militari on it's chest and "1918 1921" on obverse. "POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY" on reverse. On a ribbon that has a blue middle stripe, bordered by black then white then red then white stripes with a red edge.
Medal for Rescuing the Perishing. A silver medal with a crowned Eagle and "RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA" on obverse. "ZA RATOWANIE GINACYCH" on reverse. On a red and white ribbon with a barrel connector. Awarded to persons who risked their life to save someone else.
10th Anniversary of Independence Medal. Issued in 1928 for the 10th anniversary of the founding of the 2nd Republic to those who served 5 years service in the military or civil service between 1918 and 1928 to commemorate the re-building of Poland. Pilsudski on obverse, plower and plow and "1918 1928" on reverse. On a blue ribbon.
3rd of May Medal. A silver medal awarded in 1925 to commemorate the anniversary of the Polish constitution of 1791. Made of silver with a crowned Eagle and "RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA" on obverse. "3 MAJ 1925" and numbered on the reverse. On a red and white ribbon that is horizontally striped, sometimes folded in a triangle.
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Academic Laureate Medal. In two classes, gold and silver. Awarded for contributions in the field of literature and arts. 6 armed enameled rosette medal with "AL" on the obverse. On a light green ribbon with two white stripes.
Long Service Decorations. Awarded
for 10 and 20 years service (in roman numerals on reverse of the medal).
10 year bronze, 20 year silver. Eagle with "ZA DLUGOLETNIA SLUZBE"
on obverse. "X" or "XX" on reverse. Gold for thirty years not awarded
due to WW II. On a crimson ribbon with one white center stripe.
Red Cross Medal. Instituted in 1923 for outstanding service to the Polish Red Cross (P.C.K.). In four classes , 1st Gold cross, 2nd class Gold medal, 3rd class Silver medal, 4th class Bronze medal. Lower classes later changed from medals to crosses. Crosses red enamel with Eagle on obverse. "PCK ZASLUDZE" on reverse. On a white ribbon with two red stripes.
Volunteer War Cross and Medal. Instituted in 1939 to honor volunteers in the 1918-1921 was against the Bolsheviks. None were awarded at the time, but the cross has since been resurrected in slightly modified form after the fall of the communist regime in silver (plated). Cross bronze, with Eagle and "OCHOTNIKOWI WOJENNEMU 1918 1921" on obverse. Reverse plain. Medal, bronze with Eagle and "OCHOTNIKOWI WOJENNEMU 1918 1921" on obverse. Soldier on reverse. All pre-war versions are replicas. On a red ribbon with 2 white stripes.
COMMEMORATIVES (not official Government issue)
Haller Swords. Awarded to those from Canada and the United States who fought under General Haller in France, Italy and against the Bolsheviks. Also awarded to members of the Polish Army Veteran's Association as an honourary decoration. A trapezoidal medal with crossed swords and a White enameled Eagle with gold cross on it's chest and "4 X 1918 AMERYKA FRANCJA WLOCHY" and "JH" monogram (Jozef Haller) on the obverse. Reverse plain. On a blue ribbon with a red and white stripe on each side.
Cross of American Volunteers. The cross awarded in two types, gilt and bronze. Given to American volunteers in the war against the Bolsheviks. Cross with an Eagle and "AMERYKI SWOIM ZOLNIERZOM Z OSWOBODZONA POLSKA" on obverse. On a half white half red ribbon.
Haller Medal. Established in 1932 as a 15 year commemorative medal. Awarded to all troops who served under General Haller between 1914 and 1922. Silver medal with Haller on the obverse and "1914/1922 1932/1917" (on a shield with an Eagle on top) and "DLA CIEBIE POLSKO I TWEJ CHWALY" on the reverse. On a blue ribbon with black stripes.
Polish Army in France Medal. Established
in 1920 as a commemorative. Awarded to all troops serving in France
under General Haller 1914-1918. Made of Bronze with General Haller
on the obverse and Polish soldiers and "WOJSKO POLSKIE WE FRANCYI MCMXVII
on the reverse. On a blue ribbon with two red stripes.
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Air Defence League Cross. Cross with "LOPP" on obverse. Yellow ribbon with a thin green and white stripe on each side.
Defense of Lwow Cross. Bronze cross awarded for participation in the defence of the city. It was attacked by Ukrainian communists during November 1918. Many other commemorative decorations were awarded for Lwow.
Grand Cross for Upper Silesia.
In 2 classes. 1st class (Grand Cross) on sash, 2nd class (Commanders
Cross) worn around the neck. Each class with swords for combat
and without swords for civilians. Un-official decoration awarded
by a veteran's group. Blue enamelled cross with Silesian Eagle on
the obverse. "ZA GORNY SLASK 1921" on reverse. On a light blue
ribbon with white and red edge stripes.
Upper Silesian Cross of War Merit (Commemorative). In 2 classes. A silvered Cross with a Silesian Eagle in the center obverse and 17.VIII.19 3.V.21 17.VIII.20 ZA POW. SLASKIE" on the arms of the Cross. Reverse a sword and a wreath. On the same ribbon as the Cross of Valour and Merit of the Silesian Army - suspended on a pale blue ribbon with two wide white stripes and thin red edges. A Star on the ribbon denotes a first class award.
Wolyn Cross. Awarded
for fighting in that region. With or without swords.
"WOLYN 1918 1919 1920" on obverse Blue ribbon with 2 white stripes.
Balachowicz Cross of Valor. Un-official
decoration awarded by Russian General Balachowicz to his troops who fought
against the Bolsheviks. A distinctive silver cross, enameled white
on the obverse and generally plain on the reverse except for hallmarks,
some with private engraving.
The obverse center depicts a human skull in a wreath with a torch and sword. On a black ribbon with two gold stripes.
Wound Stars. Small bullion embroidered
stars on a miniature Virtuti Militari ribbon, which is worn
horizontally above other decorations.. One star for each time wounded.
White Eagle Order. The highest Order of the Polish Government in Exile. Same as II Republic.
Order Virtuti Militari. Can only
be awarded for the most outstanding acts or services in time of war, this
Order was re-established in 1940-41 by the Polish Government in Exile.
"VIRTUTI MILITARI" on obverse. "HONOR I OJCZYZNA 1792" on reverse. Usually numbered on the reverse. Awarded in 5 classes as previously noted. On a blue ribbon with 2 black stripes.
Order Polonia Restituta. Carried on from 1921. This Order of Polonia Restituta was made by Spink (several variations). "POLONIA RESTITVTA" and crowned Eagle on obverse. "1918" on the reverse. In 5 classes as noted earlier, and awarded for similar acts. Red ribbon with 2 white stripes.
Cross of Merit, w & w/o swords. A
continuation of the Cross of Merit in 3 classes as before.
1st in gilt, 2nd in silver and 3rd in plain bronze. "RP" in the center of the obverse. The 1st & 2nd classes has red enameled arms. The reverse was plain. Crosses with Swords suspension device were for meritorious military acts and bravery, not in direct combat. Ribbon is crimson with two pale blue stripes as before.
Cross of Valour. 1939, 1940 and 1920. The Cross of Valour was re-instated in 1940 (officially 1941) for acts of extreme valour. Bronze cross with an Eagle on the obverse and "NA POLU CHWALY" and a date "1939", "1940" or "1920". Reverse "WALECZNYM". The ribbon was changed (inverted) to white with 2 crimson stripes. The year on the lower arm of the Cross indicates when it was awarded in the case of the 1939 & 1940 Crosses. After 1940, the award was standardized so that they would not end up with so many different Crosses and the year was changed to 1920. 1939 Crosses are considered by most authorities to be fantasy items, any encountered today are likely modern replicas. 1940 Crosses are rare.
Monte Cassino Cross. Awarded to all Polish participants who took Monte Cassino abbey from the Germans in 1944. "MONTE CASSINO MAJ 1944" on obverse. All awarded crosses are numbered on the reverse, all below 50,000 ( 48,898 is the highest awarded number, higher numbers were "left-overs"). Some have an extra metal "MONTE CASSINO" bar on the ribbon. On a blue ribbon with 5 orange stripes.
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Home Army Cross. Established in 1966
by the Government in Exile and awarded to members of the Underground Home
Army. Silver plated cross with "PW" in a wreath on the obverse.
"1939 ARMIA KRAJOWA 1945" on reverse. On a white ribbon with red
edges and 6 thin red stripes.
English made ribbons are moire, the more modern Polish made ribbons are plain material.
Army Medal. Awarded for active army service for a minimum period of time served. Bars on ribbon denote additional terms served. Eagle with a sword in it's talons on obverse. "POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY" on reverse. On a crimson ribbon with 3 white stripes and white edges.
Sea Medal. Awarded to Polish personnel on active sea duty during WW II for a minimum period of service. Bars on ribbon denote additional terms served. Silver medal with Arm and Sword on obverse. "POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY" on reverse. On a dark blue ribbon with 2 thin white stripes.
Air Medal. Awarded to active Polish personnel who served in Polish units of various air forces, for a minimum period of time, especially the Polish squadrons of the RAF. Bars on ribbon denote additional terms served. Silver medal with Airforce emblem on obverse. "POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY" on reverse. On a pale blue ribbon with 2 wide white stripes. Enameled versions are post war issues.
Merchant Marine Medal. Awarded to Polish personnel serving in the Merchant Marine during the war. Bars on ribbon denote additional terms served. A silver medal with anchor and Eagle on obverse. "POLSKA SWEMU MARYNARZOWI" on reverse. On a dark blue ribbon with two pairs of thin white stripes.
25th Anniversary of Monte Cassino. Round medal with Monte Cassino cross on obverse. Warsaw Mermaid on reverse with "1944 1969". Green ribbon with a red and white stripe in the middle.
Polish Army in France Medal. Awarded to Polish personnel who served in France during the War. Silver medal with Generals Zdrojewski and Sikorski on the obverse with "1939 WOLNOSC 1945". Reverse "ARMEE POLONAISE EN FRANCE ET RESISTANCE". Two versions of ribbons exist. "Polish" version red and white with blue edges. French version white with a blue center stripe that has two thin green stripes in it and red edges.
Commemorative of the 1st Grenadier Division in
France. Issued in 1970 to commemorate the
30th anniversary of the 1st Grenadiers, who fought in France. A bronze medal with an Eagle holding a grenade with "D1G" on it and the inscription "4444 WYKONAC" on the obverse. Cross of Lorraine and "1940 1970" on the reverse. On a blue and red ribbon with a white stripe in the middle.
1st Armoured Division Cross. Cross awarded to veterans of the 1st Armoured division. Cross with Husarz helmet and "1 DYW PANC" on obverse. On a black ribbon with 2 pairs of thin orange/red stripes.
September Campaign Cross. Instituted in the mid 1980's by the Government in Exile. This cross was awarded to those defending Poland from the German and Russian invaders in September 1939. Crowned Eagle with "WRZESIEN 1. IX 17.IX 1939 RP" on obverse. On a white ribbon with three red stripes (center stripe wider) in the middle and red edges.
Wound Stars. As for the II
Order of the Builders of the People's Republic
of Poland. Awarded only to Polish citizens. For outstanding
contributions to the economy of Poland. Considered the highest Communist
Polish Order. Gold with red enamel, worker with red enamel flag in
a blue enamel circle on obverse.
"RP" (upto 1952) or "PRL" (after 1952) on reverse. On a red ribbon with a white stripe in the center and blue edges. Rarely awarded.
Order of the Red Banner of Labour. Awarded in two classes, Gold and silver. For outstanding contributions to the economy of Poland. 5 white enamel rays with worker holding red flag on obverse. "RP" (upto 1952) or "PRL" (after 1952) on reverse. May be awarded to foreigners. It was considered to be a high decoration. Red ribbon with two dark red stripes.
Order of Merit of the People's Republic of Poland. Instituted in 1974 to somewhat revive the Order of the White Eagle. Unlike the Order of the White Eagle, this order has 5 classes. 1st class Grand Cross with Star, 2nd class Commander's cross on a neck ribbon and a Star, 3rd class on a neck ribbon, 4th class in gilt with a rosette on an ordinary ribbon and 5th class silver on an ordinary ribbon. All have a 5 armed cross with uncrowned Eagle on the obverse, "1974" on the reverse. Awarded to Foreigners for outstanding contributions of all types to Poland. On a pale blue ribbon.
Order Polonia Restituta. Re-instituted by the communists in the same 5 classes as before. The year on the reverse was changed to 1944. Usually an un-crowned Eagle on obverse. "POLONIA RESTITVTA" on obverse. "1944" on the reverse. On a red ribbon with two white stripes.
Order Virtuti Militari. Revived by the communists in the same 5 classes as before. Easily identified by the lack of a crown on the eagle's head. "VIRTUTI MILITARI" on obverse. "HONOR I OJCZYZNA 1792" on reverse. On a pale blue ribbon with 2 black stripes.
Medal of Merit on the Field of Glory. First
issued in 1943 in three classes after the battle of Lenino. Changed
slightly in 1944. Before the re-instatement of the Order Virtuti
Militari, this medal was issued for acts of military virtue and valour.
It came in 3 classes, 1st in gold, 2nd in silver and 3rd in bronze.
Obverse: Order of Virtuti Militari (1943 version has flags as well as a
crowned Eagle). Reverse: 1943 version: "ZASLUZONYM NA POLU CHWALY
12-13 X 1943 LENINO".
1944 version "ZASLUZONYM NA POLU CHWALY 1944". On a blue ribbon with a black center stripe and thin black edges.
Order of the Cross of Grunwald. Instituted
in 1944 and awarded to individuals who made outstanding contributions to
the Polish war effort and in training Polish soldiers after the war.
In 3 classes: A large gilt cross, 1st class; A smaller silver cross with gilt edges on both sides, 2nd class; And a silver cross the same size as the second class is the 3rd class. Two swords on obverse. Reverse: "1410 KG 1944". On a red ribbon with a white center stripe and green edges.
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Cross of Merit. Revived by the communist
regime in 1944 and awarded for meritorious acts or services by military
personnel and civilians. In 3 classes as before. 1st in gilt,
2nd in silver and 3rd in plain bronze. The 1st & second classes
has red enameled arms. The reverse was plain. Early issues
(before 1952) had "RP" and later issues have "PRL" in the center.
All are on a crimson ribbon with 2 pale blue stripes.
Cross of Valour. Revived from the 1920 Cross in 1943 after the battle of Lenino in the USSR. Awarded for extreme acts of valour. 1943 version made in Moscow. The cross was changed in 1944 and they are dated as such. 1944 examples generally made in Poland. Several variations exist. Bronze cross with an Eagle on the obverse and "NA POLU CHWALY" and a date "1943" or "1944". Reverse "WALECZNYM". On a crimson ribbon with 2 white stripes.
Partisan's Cross. Instituted in 1945 and awarded to those fought with distinction against the occupying German army. Also awarded to Partisans of other countries, such as France. A gilt cross with an Eagle and "ZA POLSKE WOLNOSC I LUD" on the obverse. Reverse: "PARTYZANTOM 1939 1945". On a green ribbon with 2 black stripes.
Silesian Uprising Cross. Established in 1946 and awarded to those who fought in the Silesian uprising of 1921. Also awarded to some who fought (insurgence) against the Germans in Silesia during the Second World War. Only 12,000 were awarded and it is un-common. White metal cross with Silesian Eagle in a bright blue enamel circle and "1921 1939 1945" on the obverse. Reverse "KRN 1946". On a very colourful ribbon that has a central white stripe flanked by red then green then white then light blue then white stripes and with red edges.
Wielkopolski Uprising Cross. Established in 1957 and awarded to veterans of the Wielkopolski uprisings against the Germans in 1918-1919. A bronze cross with a white enamel Eagle in a red enamel circle, with a sword running down through the circle and "1918 1919" on the obverse. Reverse: "PRL POWSTANCOM WIELKOPOLKIM". On a pale blue ribbon with 2 red stripes. 213,000 made, and is fairly common.
Warsaw Uprising Cross. Instituted in 1984 on the 40th anniversary of the Warsaw uprising against the Germans. Awarded to participants of the uprising. A silvered cross with the "PW" Home Army symbol and "I VIII 1944" on the obverse. "POWSTANCOM WARSZAWY" on reverse. On a blue ribbon with 4 black stripes and a red and white central stripe. Quite common.
Auschwitz Cross. Established in 1985 and awarded to those who were interred at Nazi concentration camps. A silvered cross with a "P" in a red enamel triangle and "1939 1945" on the obverse. Reverse Either "RP" or PRL (two versions) and "WIEZNIOM HITLEROWSKICH OBOZOW KONCENTRACYJNYCH". On a dark blue ribbon with 5 pale stripes, equally spaced.
Warsaw Medal. Established in 1945 and awarded to those who defended or liberated Warsaw from the German army. It was awarded over 120,000 times. A bronze medal with the Warsaw Mermaid on the obverse and "1939-1945 ZA WARSZAWIE". Reverse: "RP OBRONCOM BOJOWNIKOM OSWOBODZICIELOM". On a red ribbon with 2 gold stripes.
Medal Odra Nyse Baltyk. Established in 1945 to honor those who fought on Polish borders. The medal is made of bronze with a map of Poland on the obverse and the inscription "ZA ODRE NYSE BALTYK". Reverse: "RP ZWYCIEZCOM III 1945 IV 1945". On a blue ribbon with 2 pale blue stripes. Over 320,000 made. It is quite common.
Victory Medal. Instituted in 1945 and awarded to all those who fought for the victory over Germany. Over 550,000 made. Made of bronze with an un-crowned Eagle on the obverse with "KRAJOWA RADA NARODOWA". "RP ZWYCIESTWO I WOLNOSC 9 V 1945" on the reverse. On a red ribbon with 2 white stripes.
Medal for the Battle of Berlin. Instituted in 1966 and awarded to those who participated in the battle for Berlin in 1945. Silvered medal with the Cross of Grunwald on the obverse and the words "ZA UDZIAL W WALKACH O BERLIN", reverse with "MINISTERSTWO OBRONY NARODOWEJ PRL". On a red ribbon with 2 pairs of black and yellow stripes.
Medal for Participation in the War of Defense.
Instituted in 1984 and awarded to those who fought against the invading
German army in 1939. Silvered medal with "1939" and an Eagle on the
obverse, "ZA UDZIAL W WOJNIE OBRONNEJ OJCZYZNA" on the reverse. On
a pale blue ribbon with a central red stripe flanked on each side by a
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BIGOSZEWSKA, Wanda. Polskie Ordery I Odznaczenia. Wydawnictwo Interpress, Warsaw, 1989
DORLING, H. Taprell & PURVES, Alec A. Ribbons
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FILIPOW, Krzysztof. Order Virtuti Militari 1792-1945. Wydawnictwo Bellona, Warsaw, 1990
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Wanda, JONCA, Adam. Wojsko
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and Decorations The Peoples Republic of Poland 1943-
1975. Militaria House, Toronto, 1989.
KOZLOWSKI, Martin. Poland: Silesian Uprising 1919-1921. Militaria House, Toronto 1994
OBERLEITNER, Stefan. Polskie Ordery Odznaczenia I Niektore Wyroznienia Zaszczytne 1705-1990. Kanion Zielona Gora 1992
WESOLOWSKI, Zdzislaw P. Polish Orders, Medals,
Badges and Insignia Military and Civilian
Decorations 1705-1985. Printing Services INC., MIAMI, 1986.
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